1. Instead of spending your vacation on a bus， ... you may want to try hiking. Instead和instead 0f的用法
2. Say "Hi" / "Hello" / "Thanks" to sb. （for me） 问候的句型
3. Is anybody seeing you off? 进行时表将来
4. She struggled and struggled， and could not get on her feet. （= keep struggling）
5. You should not go rafting unless you know... unless引导条件状语从句，相当于if... not
6. By staying at...， tourists can help the villagers make money so that they can take care of the fiver and the birds. 目的状语从句
7. She was so surprised that she couldn't move. 结果状语从句
8. Tree after tree went down， cut down by water. 过去分词作状语
9. The next moment， the first wave swept her down， swallowing the garden. 现在分词作状语
10. However， before she could think twice， the water was upon her. It didn't take long before the building was destroyed. before的用法
A: Key Words and Expressions:
1. Which of the news media above is the most reliable? 以上的新闻媒体中哪一种最可靠?
reliable adj. 可信赖的； 可依靠的； 确定的
They are reliable friends. 他们是可信赖的朋友。
Is the source of the information reliable? 那个消息的来源可靠吗?
[链接] reliably adv. 可靠地；确实地 reliability n. 可靠性；可信赖性
2. The man was fired. 那个人被解雇了。
The company fired him for not coming to work on time. 那个公司因他不按时上班解雇了他。
He fired his gun at the big snake. 他开枪打那条大蛇。
The story fired his imagination. 这个故事激发了他的想象力。
3. The man faced difficulties.
（1） face v.t. 面临（困难等），应付， 面对；（危险、困难等）迫近
可与介词 to/ towards / on连用
We must face our trouble and bear it. 我们必须正视我们的困难并勇于承受。
The house faces south/the south/to the south.那房子面朝南。
He faced the difficulty with courage.
He faced the enemy bravely.
be faced with 面临，面对 face up to面对；承担
face the music接受（不愉快的后果或情况）（对自己的行为结果）负起责任；接受批评）
I was faced with a new problem. 我面临了新问题。
She couldn’t face up to the fact that she was no longer young.
The boy was caught cheating in the examination and had to face the music.
I must face the music and accept responsibility.我一定接受批评并承担责任。
If anything goes wrong，“is 1 who will have to face the music.
e.g. She learned to speak English without difficulty. 她毫无困难地学会了讲英语。
We will face many difficulties in the future. 将来我们要面临许多难题。
l'm in a bit of a difficulty over paying my rent.我对付房租有点困难，
have（much/no/1ittle）difficulty with sth.
There is（no/1ittle/much）difficulty（in）doing sth.
I don't have much difficulty with English grammar.我对学英语语法没什么困难。
She had no difficulty in finding the house.她毫无困难地找到了那间房子。
The patient had difficulty breathing.那个病人呼吸困难。
She found no difficulty in solving the problem.她发现解决那个问题没什么困难。
There was little difficulty in understanding him.理解他的意思没什么困难。
She calmed her daughter with some difficulty.她费了力气才使女儿平静下来。
He finished the work without much difficulty.他很轻松地完成了工作。
4. The man was generous.
generous adj. 慷慨的；大方的；宽容的；豁达的；丰富的，丰盛的
e.g. He is generous with his money. 他出手大方。
He gave me a generous lunch. 他请我吃了一顿丰盛的午餐。
[链接] generous adv. 慷慨地 generosity n. 慷慨大方
5.Below is a list of ten things that happened today. 以下列出了今天发生的十件事。
本句为倒装句，正常语序应为：A list of ten things that happened today is below.
below看作副词，表示方位，当表示方位的状语或表语位于句首时，句子采用全部倒装的结构，即把谓语动词的所有组成部分都移到主语之前。这类作状语或表语的词常见的有：away， down， in， off， out， over， up， above， below， here， there及介词短语与分词。
Here is a seat for you.这儿有你的一个座位。
There goes the bell！铃响了。
Written on the blackboard are the names of those who were late yesterday.
6.France elected a new president.
elect v.t. 选举，推选
e.g. They elected a president. / They elected him as President.
e.g. Our classmates elected him as/to be/our/as our monitor.
They elected the old man to be chairman of the club.他们推选那位老人为俱乐部主席。
[辨析] elect， pick out， choose
e.g. Roosevelt was elected four times to the presidency of the U.S.A.
e.g. We had to choose between leaving early and paying for a taxi.
There are ten to choose from.
e.g. She picked out a scarf to wear with the dress.
7.Food prices are going up. 食品价格在上涨。
e.g. The temperature has gone up.
The lift went up to the fourth floor. 电梯升到了四楼。
8.A house in your city burnt down. Nobody was injured.
（1）burn down 烧毁；使烧毁【强调破坏性】；（由于燃料烧尽）火力减弱
These houses were burnt down to the ground. 这些房子被烧毁。
The fire is burning down， get some more coal please.
[比较] burn up烧尽，烧光【强调动作的结果】；（火，炉等）烧起来，旺起来
e.g. Put some wood on the fire and make it burn up.
（2） injure v.t. 使受伤；损害，伤害（感情）
She injured herself while skating.她在滑冰时受了伤。
The earthquake killed 2000 people and inured 3000。
He got badly inured in the accident.在这次事故中他受了重伤。
The injured were taken to hospital.伤员被送往医院。
Smoking will inure your health.吸烟会损害你的健康。
I hope l didn't inure her feelings.我希望没有伤害她的感情。
Her refusal inured his pride.她拒绝了他，伤了他的自尊心。
[辨析] injure， wound， hurt， harm的区别：
e.g. In the traffic accident， two were killed and three get injured.
He was so injured in his pride that he stayed at home all day without meeting anyone.
e.g. The soldier was badly wounded in the head.这个士兵头部受了重伤。
The bullet wounded his arm.子弹打伤了他的胳膊。
e.g. Luckily no one was seriously hurt in the car accident.
The girl fell off her bike， and one of her legs hurt.
e.g. There was a fire in our street， but no one was harmed.
Getting up early won’t harm you！ 早起对你没有害处。
9.Newspapers and other media do more than simply record what happens.
e.g. Do remember to remind me to return the book I borrowed from you.
（2） more than不仅仅；极为，非常；多于；难以；不能
e.g. She’s more than a teacher to us.
The boy more than smiled but laughed. 这男孩不仅是微笑，而是放声大笑了。
We are more than pleased with the results. 我们对结果极为满意。
He has more than 300 pictures.
This room is three time larger than that one.这个房间比那个房间大两倍。
The old man is two times older than I am. 这个老人的年龄比我大一倍。
That is more than I can tell. 那是怎么回事我实在难说。
①more than + 数词，意为“……以上；多于……；……有余”。
More than 20 club members attended the meeting.
Peace is much more than the absence Of war.和平不仅仅是意味着没有战争。
He is more than selfish.他非常自私。
I am more than happy to hear that.听到这我非常高兴。
Her performance was more than good；it was perfect.
④more than + 动词，意为“十分；大大地；不仅仅”。
He more than smiled；he laughed outright.他岂止是微笑，他简直是大笑了。
The beauty of Hang zhou is more than words can describe.
That's more than l can tell you，Sir.这一点我是不能告诉您的，先生。
10.Experienced editors and reporters make informed decisions about what events to report and how to report them.
（1） 句中的experienced（富有经验的）和informed（见识广的，有知识的） 都是动词的过去分词作定词，修饰动词。单个的过去分词作定语时，通常放在它所修饰的名词前面。
e.g. a fallen tree一棵倒下的树 a broken chair一把破椅子stolen cultural relics被盗的文物
（2） informed adj. 明智的，有知识的，了解情况的
e.g. He is a well-informed man.他是个消息灵通的人。
inform sb. of sth.告知某人某事 inform sb. that/wh-…告知某人
e.g. The singer informed us of their arrival.歌手们把他们到来的消息告诉了我们。
The nurse informed me that visiting hours were over.护士告诉我探病时间已经结束了。
Who informed you when to start? 是谁告诉你们出发时间的?
11.They also make sure that readers can relate to the stories.
relate v.i. & v.t （和～）相关；涉及；把～与～关联起来
e.g. It is difficult to relate the two cases. 很难把两个案子联系起来。
We should learn to relate the results to the causes.
Light industry is closely related to the people’s life.轻工业与人们的生活有密切的关系。
12.The two reporters agreed to switch roles for once and be the interviewees rather than the interviewers in order to let us know about their work and how the news we read in made.
（1） switch v. 转换，改变
e.g. He is always switching jobs. 他总变换工作。
He switched the recorder to the “off” position.他将录音机拧到“关”的位置。
（2） for once 就这（那）一次
e.g. For once they broke the rule.这一次，他们违规了。
For once our manager came late. 我们的经理这次来晚了。
He beat me for once.他只有一次赢了我。
He decided to write to rather than （to） phone.他决定写信而不打电话了。
I’d like to go there in autumn rather than in summer.我愿意秋天去那里而不愿意夏天去。
He was engaging in writing a letter rather than reading a newspaper.
He is an artist rather than a politician.他是一位艺术家，而不是政治家。
The colour seems green rather than blue.颜色好像是绿的，不是蓝的。
It ought to be you rather than me that sign the letter.
They were screaming rather than singing.他们在尖叫，而不是在唱歌。
He was engaged in writing rather than reading the newspaper.
She telephoned rather than wrote.她打了电话，而没有写信。
I am going to forget the whole affair，rather than cause trouble.
She likes to keep things rather than（to）throw them away.
Rather than go there，I'd prefer to stay here on my own.
13.After the interview， the reporter must present the material in an organized way and make sure that the article reflects events and opinions truthfully.
（1） present vt.呈现；描述；介绍；赠送
e.g. When will you present your report?你什么时候提出报告?
The government presented cars to the hospitals. 政府向医院赠送了一些车。
Allow me to present Mr. Brown to you. 请允许我把布朗先生介绍给你。
（2） reflect vt. 反映；表现；反射；映出
This letter is sure to reflect our real opinion.这封信会反映出我们的真实意见。
Does this letter reflect your real opinions? 这封信反映出了你真正的观点吗?
Her face reflected how angry she was. 她的脸表示出她多么生气。
The water reflected the sunlight.日光反射在水面上。
The mirror reflected the heat.那面镜子反射热气。
Mirrors reflect light.镜子能反射光线。
The lake reflected the trees.湖面映现着树木的影像。
She was looking at her face reflected in the mirror.
14.My favourite article is the one I wrote about the efforts to bring stolen cultural relics back to China.我最喜欢的文章是我写的一篇关于如何努力把被盗的文物带回中国。
e.g. I haven’t a pen. Can you lend me one? 指代可数名词复数用ones。
e.g. On the desk there is a red pencil and two black ones.
（2）effort n. [U，C]努力；艰难的尝试；努力的结果
e.g. He did it without effort.他毫不费力地完成那件事
[短语] make an effort努力，尽力 spare no effort不遗余力
15.I want to write about people you seldom read about， for example people who have AIDS or who are addicted to drugs.
（1） seldom adv. 很少；不常；难得
e.g. Seldom does he quarrel with others.
Never did I dream of seeing him in America.
Never before have so many people come to see him.
Not a single word did she say.
（2）be / get / become addicted to sth. / doing sth.对…成瘾/成癖
e.g. It doesn’t take long to become addicted to these drugs.
It’s a pity that her child has got addicted to smoking.真可怜，她的孩子抽烟上瘾了。
Some children are addicted to computer games / TV.（喻）
He is addicted to practicing Chinese Gongfu.他醉心于练习中国功夫。
16.We shouldn’t ignore what happens even if it is difficult for people to accept some stories.
（1） ignore v.t. 不理睬；忽视
e.g. You shouldn’t ignore your father’s advice.你不该无视父亲的忠告。
I tried to tell her but she ignored me.我打算告诉她，可是她不理睬我。
（2） even if / even though即使，尽管
e.g. The young man didn’t lose heart even if he had failed many times in finding a job.
17.The media can often help solve problems and draw attentions to situations where help is needed.媒介常可帮助解决难题，使人们关注需要得到帮助的情况。
draw attention to关注某事 draw / attract one’s attention引起某人的注意
e.g. This article will draw attention to farmers and agriculture.
The fallen leaves drew /attracted the worker’s attention.这些落叶引起了那个工人的注意。
He drew my attention to a mistake in my homework.他要我注意作业中的一处错误。
18.The result is a better understanding of the world on all sides， leading to a future world where people from all countries are respected and different views and opinions are tolerated.结果会使人们更好地了解世界地各个方面，给人们带来一个人人受到尊重，不同观念得到包容地未来世界。
（1） on all sides（=on every side） 在各方面，四面八方
e.g. They were trapped with enemies on all sides.他们四面楚歌。
The enemy were attacking on all sides.敌人从四面八方发起进攻。
（2） tolerate v.t. 容忍，忍受，允许
e.g. I can’t tolerate that loud music / that kind of behavior
Cheating on exams cant’ be tolerated. 考试作弊是不能容忍的。
19. I would not believe it， but I might check other sources and maybe change my mind.
change one’s mind改变主意
e.g. Since getting to know him better， I have changed my mind about him.
[相关短语] bear / keep in mind 记住 call/bring to mind 使人想起 out of one’s mind 精神错乱，发狂 never mind 不要紧，没关系 have sth. in mind 记得某事，想起某事
20.Famous people are often asked for their opinions on current affairs.
current affairs 当前的事件；时事
e.g. The minister deals with important affairs of State.这位大臣处理重要的国务。
current adj. 此刻的，现时的，当前的
e.g. current fashions时装 current events时事
21. Nine out of ten women who were interviewed about the product said they liked it.
nine out of ten（=nine in ten）十之八九，百分之九十
e.g. Nine out of ten people will not agree with you.
Four out of the ten children there can go to school.在那里十个孩子中只有四个可以上学。
22. And I like the way the fans look up to them.
look up to尊敬，敬仰（反义：look down on轻视，看不起）
The young should look up to the old.年轻人应该尊敬老人。
Schoolboys usually look up to great athletes.学生通常尊敬伟大的运动员。
He is a fine chap.I've always looked up to him.他是个好小伙子，我一直尊敬他。
We should look up to him as an example Of devotion to duty.
23. Americans will fall in love with this game too.
fall in love with爱上（表示动作，不延续）
e.g. I fell in love with her at first sight.我对她一见钟情。
She fell in love with the house as soon as she saw it.
[比较] be in love （with） 相爱，喜欢（表示延续状态）
e.g. If you’re really in love with art， you don’t mind hard work.
24. Brave and strong， the activists talked to workers outside the factory…
brave and strong是形容词作状语，形容词或形容词短语作状语，通常说明主语行为的原因、方式、伴随状况等。
e.g. Cold and hungry， he decided to stop and have a rest. （表原因）
Ripe， the oranges taste sweet.（表方式）这些橘子熟了，味道甜美。
25. The peaceful meeting ended when the company sent out a group of angry men armed with sticks to fight with the citizens.
arm v.t. 武装，用武器装备
The robber was armed.那个强盗有武器。
The soldiers were armed to teeth.士兵们武装到牙齿
arm oneself with ...“装备……；以……为武器”
They armed themselves with machine guns.他们装备了机关枪。
The crowd armed themselves with sticks and stones.那些群众以棍棒和石头当武器。
He is armed to the teeth.他全副武装。
The robber was armed.那强盗有武器。
The warship is armed with nuclear weapons.那艘战舰有核武器。
a man of arms战士
The people were quick to take up arms to defend their freedom.
26. I’m sure they won’t feel disappointed.
disappoint v.t. 使失望 disappointing adj. 令人失望的 disappointed adj. 失望的
e.g. The book disappointed me.这本书令我失望。
The news was really disappointing.那个消息真令人感到失望。
Are you very disappointed about losing the game?你是不是因为比赛输了而感到很失望?
常用于句式：inform sb.of sth.
I informed her mother of her safe arrival.我通知她母亲她已平安抵达。
She returned and informed us of their decision.她回来告知我们她们的决定。
We were informed that a big fire had broken out in the next town.
His letter informed us how and when he was expected to arrive in Beijing.
Has he been informed Of his father's death yet? 告知他父亲去世的消息了吗?
Please keep me informed Of fresh developments.请随时告知我最新的进展情况。
It is difficult to relate these results with/to any known cause.
I can't relate what he does to what he says.
常用于被动语态：be related to …“与……有关系”
His fear of people is deeply related to his unhappy childhood.
Physics is closely related to mathematics.物理学与数学有着密切的关系。
I want to ask you a question that relates to politics.
That does not relate to him.这并不涉及他。
This letter relates to the sale of the house.这封信有关那房子的销售。
I can't tolerate your bad manners any more.我再也不能容忍你的不礼貌了。
She didn't tolerate his selfishness.她不容许他的自私。
How can you tolerate that rude fellow? 你怎能忍受那个粗野的家伙?
I won't tolerate you/your cheating in the exam.我不会容许你考试作弊。
The government tolerates smoking and drinking but not taking drugs.
a broken heart一颗破碎的心 a lost dog丧家之犬 a risen sun已升起的太阳
an organized trip有组织的旅行 a broken glass被打破的玻璃杯
a trip organized by the league由共青团组织的旅行
a glass broken by the boy被这个男孩打破的玻璃杯
The excited people rushed out of the building.
They found a damaged car at the gate of the park.
The letter posted yesterday will soon reach him.他很快就能收到昨天寄出的信了。
Have you read the books written by the young writer?你读过那位年轻作家写的小说吗?
The stolen bike belongs to Jack.被偷的自行车是杰克的。
The bike which had been stolen belongs to Jack.
The lecture given by Professor Zhang is about environment protection.
The lecture which was given by Professor Zhang is about the environment protection.
The door remained locked.门仍然锁着。
She looked disappointed.她看上去挺失望。
He seemed quite delighted at the good news.听到这个好消息，他似乎很开心。
（2） 常见作表语的过去分词有：upset， disappointed， drunk， amused， frightened， married， excited， experienced， interested， confused， pleased， puzzled， satisfied， tired， worried等。
Everything is settled down.一切都解决了。
Thank heavens！ The boy is saved.谢天谢地，孩子得救了。
The town is surrounded on three sides by mountains.这座小镇三面环山。