必修5 Unit 1
JOHH SHOW DEFEATS “KING CHOLERA”
John Snow was a famous doctor in London - so expert， indeed， that he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. This was the deadly disease of its day. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. John Snow wanted to face the challenge and solve this problem. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found.
He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people. The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. A cloud of dangerous gas floated around until it found its victims. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals. From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person died.
John Snow suspected that the second theory was correct but he needed evidence. So when another outbreak hit London in 1854， he was ready to begin his enquiry. As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods， he began to gather information. In two particular streets， the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people died in tendays. He was determined to find out why.
First he marked on a map the exact places where all the dead people had lived. This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease. Many of the deaths were near the water pump in Broad Street （especially numbers 16， 37， 38 and 40）. He also noticed that some houses （such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8 and 9 Cambridge Street） had had no deaths. He had not foreseen this， so he made further investigations. He discovered that these people worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street. They had been given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the pump. It seemed that the water was to blame.
Next， John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets. He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. He immediately told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the pump so that it could not be used. Soon afterwards the disease slowed down. He had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas.
In another part of London， he found supporting evidence from two other deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. A woman， who had moved away from Broad Street， liked the water from the pump so much that she had it delivered to her house every day. Both she and her daughter died of cholera after drinking the water. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty thatpolluted water carried the virus.
To prevent this from happening again， John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more. Finally "King Cholera" was defeated.
COPERNICUS’ REVOLUTIONRRY THEORY
Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused.Although he had tried to ignore them， all his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. They believed God had made the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system.
The problem arose because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop， move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeared brighter at times and less bright at others. This was very strange if the earth was the centre of the solar system and all planets went round it.
Copernicus had thought long and hard about these problems and tried to find an answer. He had collected observations of the stars and used all his mathematical knowledge to explain them. But only his new theory could do that. So between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it， gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete.
In 1514 he showed it privately to his friends. The changes he made to the old theory were revolutionary. He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. He also suggested that the earth was
spinning as it went round the sun and this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars. His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas， but Copernicus was cautious. He did not want to be attacked by the Christian Church， so he only published it as he lay dying in 1543.
Certainly he was right to be careful. The Christian Church rejected his theory， saying it was against God's idea and people who supported it would be attacked. Yet Copernicus' theory is now the basis on which all our ideas of the universe are built. His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity， which said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe. Copernicus showed this was obviously wrong. Now people can see that there is a direct link between his theory and the work of Isaac Newton， Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking.
必修5 Unit 2
PUZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY
People may wonder why different words are used to describe these four countries: England， Wales， Scotland and Northern Ireland. You can clarify this question if you study British history.
First there was England. Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century. Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. Next England and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was changed to "Great Britain". Happily this was accomplished without conflict when King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well. Finally the English government tried in the early twentieth century to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful way. However， the southern partof Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government. So only Northern Ireland joined with England， Wales and Scotland to become the United Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack.
To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas （eg， the currency and international relations）， but they still have very different institutions. For example， Northern Ireland， England and Scotland have different educational and legal systems as well as different football teams for competitions like the World Cup！
England is the largest of the four countries， and for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones. The zone nearest France is called the South of England， the middle zone is called the Midlands and the one nearest to Scotland is known as the North. You find most of the population settled in the south， but most of the industrial cities in the Midlands and the North of England. Although， nationwide， these cities are not as large as those in China， they have world-famous football teams and some of them even have two！ It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors. For historical architecture you have to go to older but smaller towns built by the Romans. There you will find out more about British history and culture.The greatest historical treasure of all is London with its museums， art collections， theatres， parks and buildings. It is the centre of national government and its administration. It has the oldest port built by the Romans in the first century AD， the oldest building begun by the Anglo-Saxons in the 1060s and the oldest castle constructed by later Norman rulers in 1066. There has been four sets of invaders of England. The first invaders， the Romans， left their towns and roads. The second， the Anglo-Saxons， left their language and their government. The third， the Vikings， influenced the vocabulary and place-names of the North of England， and the fourth， the Normans， left castles and introduced new words for food.
If you look around the British countryside you will find evidence of all these invaders. You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile.
历史意义的宝地是伦敦。那儿有博物馆，有艺术珍品、剧院、公园和各种建筑物。它是全国的政治中心。它有公元一世纪由罗马人建造的最古老的港口，有由盎格鲁——撒克逊人始建于11世纪60年代的最古老的建筑，还有公元1066年由后来的诺曼人统治者建造的最古老的城堡。曾经有四批侵略者到过英国。第一批入侵者是古罗马人，留下了他们的城镇和道路。接着是盎格鲁——撒克逊人，留下了他们的语言和政体。第三是斯堪的纳维亚人，他们对词汇和北部的地名造成了一定影响；第四是诺曼人，他们留下了城堡和食物名称的新词语。如果你到英国乡间去看看，你就会找到所有这些入侵者的痕迹。如果想使你的英国之旅不虚此行又有意义，你就必须留心观察。 SIGHTSEEING IN LONDON
Worried about the time available， Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London. Her first delight was going to the Tower. It was built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066. Fancy！ This solid stone， square tower had remained standing for one thousand years.Although the buildings had expanded around it， it remained part of a royal palace and prison combined. To her great surprise， Zhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiers who， on special occasions， still wore the four-hundred-year-old uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth I.
There followed St Paul's Cathedral built after the terrible fire of London in 1666. It looked splendid when first built！ Westminster
Abbey， too， was very interesting. It contained statues in memory of dead poets and writers， such as Shakespeare. Then just as she came out of the abbey， Pingyu heard the famous sound of the clock， Big Ben， ringing out the hour. She finished the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palace， the Queen's house in London. Oh， she had so much to tell her friends！
The second day the girl visited Greenwich and saw its old ships and famous clock that sets the world time. What interested her most was the longitude line. It is an imaginary line dividing the eastern and western halves of the world and is very useful for navigation. It passes through Greenwich， so Pingyu had a photo taken standing on either side of the line.
The last day she visited Karl Marx's statue in Highgate Cemetery. It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London. Not only that， but he had worked in the famous reading room of the Library of the British Museum. Sadly the library had moved from its original place into another building and the old reading room was gone. But she was thrilled by so many wonderful treasures from different cultures displayed in the museum. When she saw many visitors enjoying looking at the beautiful old Chinese pots and other objects on show， she felt very proud of her country.
The next day Pingyu was leaving London for Windsor Castle. "Perhaps I will see the Queen?" she wondered as she fell asleep. 伦敦观光记