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  feeling very frustrated 现在分词在句中作伴随状语

  eg.She sat on the chair reading a newspaper.(表伴随)

  Walking in the street, she met her old friend.(表时间)

  Seeing no body at home , she decided to eat outside.(表原因)

  The child fell, striking his head against the ground.(表结果)Ought to 1) to show a moral duty 表示一种道义上的责任,应该

  Eg.She ought to look after her child better.

  You ought to study hard to get a high mark.

  ought to have done 表示本应该…,而却没有…

  Eg.You ought to have come yesterday.



  = which were cooked in the hottest oil.

  Eg.The flowers picked by him are very beautiful.

  Nothing could have been better.比较级与否定词连用表示级。

  = All his food could have been the best.

  Eg.I have never seen a better film.

  There is nothing I like so much as playing football.

  Tired of 厌烦的 He is tired of doing the same thing all year round.

  Tired out 筋疲力尽 I was tired out when I finally reach the top of the mountain.

  Tired from 因…而疲倦 I was very tied from running fast.

  get away with sth./doing sth.

  a)不因某事而受惩罚。I won’t have you getting away with cheating in the exam.

  b)偷携某物潜逃。The robbers robbed the bank and got away with a lot of money.

  c)收到较轻的惩罚。He was so lucky to get away with a fine for such a serious mistake.

  lie 谎言,说谎

  The program was full of lies.

  He lied to his wife so that he could come home late.



  It is so wet there that the trees are extremely tall.


  The trees are extremely tall, Some measuring over 90 meters.

  Some measuring over 90 meters为独立主格结构,在句子中作状语。独立主格结构主要表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、条件或伴随情况等。相当于一个状语从句或并列句。独立主格结构有下面几种形式:


  We shall play the match tomorrow ,weather permitting


  The job finished ,we went home.


  So many people to help him,he is sure to succeed.


  A girl came in,some books in hand.


  He sat in the front vow, his mouth half open.

  ⑥There being +名词(代词)

  There being nothing else to do ,we went home.

  ⑦ It being +名词(代词)

  It being Christmas, the government offices were closed.

  At school ,they had learned that most Canadians live within a few hundred kilometers of the USA border.

  过去完成时态:had learned 但由于从句表达的是客观事实所以从句使用一般现在时。


  1.mean doing sth. 意味着;

  mean to do sth. 打算或企图做某事;

  mean sb. to do sth. 打算让某人做某事

  be meant for 打算作……用; 为…而有

  2.take place 发生;举行

  3.of all kinds 各种各样的

  4.starve to death饿死 be starved of 缺乏,

  starve for sth, starve to do,渴望

  5.plenty of 大量; 充足

  6.be satisfied with感到满意

  to one’s satisfaction感到满意是

  7.do harm to sb.=do sb. harm 伤害某人

  8.in the shape of呈…的形状,以…的形式

  9.in memory of/ to the memory of sb.纪念某人

  10.dress up 穿上的衣服;打扮,化装

  11.award sth.(to sb.)和award sb.sth.(for sth.) 给予、颁奖

  reward sb. for sth. 因 …奖赏某人;

  reward sb. with sth. 用某物酬劳某人

  12. admire sb. for sth在某方面钦佩某人

  13.look forward to期望,期待,盼望

  14,have fun with(与某人)玩得开心;过得快乐 ( have a good time, enjoy oneself.)

  15. turn up.来;出现;把(收音机等)音量开大些

  turn down 拒绝; turn off 关掉;

  turn on 打开; turn out 结果是......

  turn to sb. for help 向某人求助

  16.keep one’s word/ promise 守信用;

  break one’s word, 失信

  17.It be obvious that-clause 显而易见;一目了然

  18.set off 动身, 出发; 使(地雷、炸弹)爆炸;

  set in开始; set up建立,创立 ;

  set out to do = set about doing sth.着手做

  set down 写下,记下

  19.remind sb. of sth. 提醒,使想起


  1. mean

  1) mean+ to do打算,意欲

  2) mean+ n/ pron/that从句---意思

  3)mean+ v-ing意味

  meaning (n) 意思 meaningful (a) 有意义的

  2. celebrate (v)

  celebration (n) 庆祝活动

  hold a celebration/ celebrations

  3. take place 不用于被动语态

  take sb’s place/ take the place of sb= replace sb

  take place 指经过安排的事情

  happen 偶然发生,碰巧发生

  break out 灾难、疾病、战争等突然爆发

  4. would+ v 过去常常…

  5. starve

  starve for 急需starve to death 饿死

  6. Some festivals are held to honour the dead, or satisfy the ancestors, who could return either to help or to do harm.

  1) v 尊敬,给以荣誉

  2) in honor of 为了纪念

  A festival is set to honor/ in honor of the hero.

  Do harm to sb= harm sb

  Do more harm than good

  7. in memory of 纪念,悼念…

  8. arrive (v) arrival (n)

  The arrival of the plane has been delayed.

  ____ my arrival at school, Mr Li was there.

  9. gain (n/ v)

  I gained a lot from my teacher. No pains, no gains.

  10. gather聚集,集合 (vi) 收集 (vt)

  1) A lot of people gathered to see what had happened.

  2) The student gathered a lot of information about the hero.

  11. award 奖励

  reward 回报,报酬

  He received an award of 1,000 dollars.

  He was awarded a medal for his excellent work.

  12. admire

  admire sb for sth

  They admired our garden.

  I admired him for his success in business.

  13. look forward to(介词) + n/ v-ing

  I’m looking forward to his coming.

  --ward 向着…方向

  backward 向后

  forward 向前

  14. As though/ if 好象

  15. have fun with sb


  1 ) diet


  be/go on diet 节食


  2 )区别 energy , strength , power 和 force :

  energy 主要指人的精力,工作或活动的能力,自然界的能等。

  force 主要指自然界中的力量,暴力,势力,说服力,压力,法律,道德或情感的力量, 军事的力量。

  strength 指一人或一物所含的内在的力量,能用以从事,忍受,或抵抗很多事物。

  3 ) balance


  be/hang in the balance 不确定的,尚未决定的

  keep one ’ s balance 保持平衡

  on balance 考虑周全,总的来说

  strike a balance 找出折中办法,妥协

  作动词,表示“权衡,平衡”; balance A against B 权衡利弊。

  4 ) sign



  in sign of 作为……的记号;表示……的。

  make no sign of 没有……的样子(迹象),没有表示……

  sign for 签约应聘或受雇

  sign for sth 签收某物

  sign sb on/up 使某人签约受雇

  sign up(for sth) 注册参加(俱乐部,课程)

  5 ) sigh

  sigh over … 为……叹息

  sigh for 想念,思念

  sigh out/forth sth 边叹息边说出……

  6 ) slim



  slim down 减肥,缩减。



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